Wednesday, December 23, 2009

Appendix 2 – Nutrition: Vegan Foods High in Key Nutrients

There are 8 essential nutrients that vegans should be mindful of getting enough of. Below I focus on each of these ten essential nutrients, one at a time, and list various vegan foods with a high content of that nutrient. I also list the percentage of the Recommended Daily Intake (RDI) which each food has for that nutrient. For omega-3, vitamin B12, and vitamin D I will also list supplements. The lists of food are divided into three categories: "Foods typically in lunch and dinner"; "Foods typically in breakfast or snacks"; and "Other". For the "Foods typically in lunch and dinner" category, I have divided this into three sections: "Main", "Side", and "Vegetables". Most of the omnivores that I know have meals that consist of a main dish (meat), a side dish (a grain or something high-carb), and vegetables. Of course, sometimes these three categories blend together. But I divided things up this way to keep it simple and familiar.
The 8 Essential Nutrients that New Vegans Should be Mindful of Getting Enough Of
  • Calcium
  • Iron
  • Omega 3
  • Protein
  • Vitamin B6
  • Vitamin B12
  • Vitamin D
  • Zinc
Calcium

Recommended Daily Intake (RDI): 1,000 mg*1
Food typically in lunch and dinner
  • Main (beans, soy products, etc.)
    • Tofu (firm)                    15% of RDI per quarter package
    • Tofu (soft)                    10% of RDI per quarter package
    • White beans                     18% of RDI per 100 g
  • Side (grains, pasta, potatoes, etc.)
    • Quinoa*2                    10% of RDI per cup
  • Vegetables
    • Collard greens                    15% of RDI per 100 g
    • Kale                        14% of RDI per 100 g
    • Mustard greens                10% of RDI per 100 g
    • Spinach, steamed*3                12% of RDI per half cup
Food typically in breakfast or snacks
  • Cereal
    • Total                        100% of RDI per bowl/30 g
  • Nuts
    • Almonds                     27% of RDI per 100 g
  • Seeds
    • Flaxseeds                    26% of RDI per 100 g
    • Sesame seeds                     98% of RDI per 100 g
  • Spreads
    • Almond butter                    11% of RDI per 2 and ½ tbsp
Other
  • Drinks
Nearly all brands of almond milk, rice milk, and soy milk are enriched with calcium.
  • Almond milk, enriched            20% of RDI per cup
  • Orange juice, enriched             30% of RDI per cup
  • Rice milk, enriched                30% of RDI per cup
  • Soymilk, enriched                30% of RDI per cup
  • Herbs and spices
    • Basil, dried                    200% of RDI per 100 g
    • Dill, dried                    185% of RDI per 100 g
    • Dill seed                    10% of RDI per tbsp
    • Marjoram, dried                190% of RDI per 100 g
    • Oregano, dried                156% of RDI per 100 g
    • Parsley, fresh                    22% of RDI per 100 g
    • Parsley, dried                    154% of RDI per 100 g
    • Rosemary, dried                121% of RDI per 100 g
    • Savory, dried                    213% of RDI per 100 g
    • Thyme, dried                    189% of RDI per 100g
  • Other
    • Magnesium                    Helps you absorb calcium
Notes from asterisks
  • *1 Excessive protein leaches calcium from your bones, and many studies have found that this increases the risk of osteoporosis, which makes dairy products a risky source of calcium.
  • *2 Quinoa is a grain that is cooked the same way rice is. The grains are very small and rounded in shape. When it is cooked it becomes a clearish-white color.
  • *3 When spinach is steamed, it becomes condensed (so more of it fits in half a cup). However, it has more nutrients if you eat it raw.

 

Iron
Recommended Daily Intake (RDI): 18 mg
Food typically in lunch and dinner
  • Main (beans, soy products, etc.)
    • Black beans                    20% of RDI per cup
    • Chickpeas / garbanzo beans            26% of RDI per cup
    • Kidney beans                    29% of RDI per cup
    • Lentils                        37% of RDI per cup
    • Perogies, potato & onion             23% of RDI per 6 perogies
    • Pinto beans                    20% of RDI per cup
    • Potato + skin                    10% of RDI per medium sized
    • Sliced veggie "meat"                20% of RDI per 4 slices
    • Soybeans                    50% of RDI per cup
    • Tofu, firm                    19% of RDI per quarter package
    • TVP (textured vegetable protein)*1        30% of RDI per half cup, dry    
    • Veggie ground "beef"                30% of RDI per half cup
    • Veggie "sausage" (Tofurky brand)        40% of RDI per sausage
    • White beans                    43% of RDI per cup
  • Side (grains, pasta, potatoes, etc.)
Nearly all brands of bread and pasta sold in grocery stores are enriched with iron.
  • Bread, enriched                12% of RDI per 2 slices
  • Pasta, enriched                 30% of RDI per cup
  • Pita, enriched                    10% of RDI per pita
  • Quinoa*2                    100% of RDI per cup
  • Vegetables
    • Spinach, steamed*3                20% of RDI per half cup
    • Sun dried tomatoes                13% of RDI per half cup
Food typically in breakfast or snacks
  • Cereal
Nearly all types of cereals are enriched with iron.
  • The average enriched cereal            30% of RDI per bowl/30 g
  • Shreddies                    50% of RDI per bowl/30 g
  • Total                        100% of RDI per bowl/30 g
  • Nuts
    • Cashews                    12% of RDI per quarter cup
    • Peanuts                    10% of RDI per quarter cup
  • Seeds
    • Hempseed kernels*4                 36% of RDI per quarter cup
    • Pumpkin seed kernels*5            50% of RDI per quarter cup
    • Sesame seeds                    50% of RDI per quarter cup
    • Squash seed kernels*5            50% of RDI per quarter cup
    • Sunflower seeds                14% of RDI per quarter cup
  • Spreads
    • Tahini (sesame butter)*6            17% of RDI per tbsp
Other
  • Drinks
    • Soymilk                    10% of RDI per cup
  • Herbs and spices
    • Anise seed                    205% of RDI per 100 g
    • Basil, dried                    233% of RDI per 100 g
    • Black pepper                    160% of RDI per 100 g
    • Coriander, dried                 236% of RDI per 100 g
    • Cumin seed                    369% of RDI per 100 g
    • Dill, dried                    271% of RDI per 100 g
    • Marjoram, dried                460% of RDI per 100 g
    • Oregano, dried                244% of RDI per 100 g
    • Parsley    , dried                    544% of RDI per 100 g    
    • Rosemary, dried                163% of RDI per 100 g
    • Savory, dried                    210% of RDI per 100 g
    • Spearmint, dried                486% of RDI per 100 g
    • Terragon, dried                179% of RDI per 100 g
    • Thyme, dried                     687% of RDI per 100 g
    • Turmeric                    230% of RDI per 100 g
  • Other
    • Blackstrap molasses                 20% of RDI per tbsp
    • Cocoa powder*7                200% of RDI per 100 g
    • Vitamin C                    Helps you absorb iron
Notes from asterisks
  • *1 TVP (textured vegetable protein) is light brown and comes in small cubes/chunks or flakes. It is made from soybean flour and has a very "meaty" texture.
  • *1 TVP comes dehydrated and must be boiled. After that, it can be cooked in many different ways – fried in a stir fry or for fajitas; added to a stew or soup; baked in a casserole. It is very absorbent and will take on the flavor of whatever seasoning you add.
  • *1You can buy TVP at health food stores, bulk stores, and many grocery stores.
  • *2 Quinoa is a grain that is cooked the same way rice is. The grains are very small and rounded in shape. When it is cooked it becomes a clearish-white color.
  • *3 When spinach is steamed, it becomes condensed (so more of it fits in half a cup). However, it has more nutrients if you eat it raw.
  • *4 Hempseeds can be purchased in health food stores and certain grocery stores.
  • *4 Their taste is non-intrusive and add a nice subtle texture to whatever you add them to, so this leaves many possibilities for how to eat them. I like to sprinkle them onto or into whatever I'm eating: cereal, soup, stew, stir-fry. chilé, tacos, casserole, curry, pasta, pizza, cookies, cake, non-dairy ice cream, etc.
  • *5 Pumpkin and squash seeds are popular in Middle Eastern and East Asian cultures and can be found in stores catering to these communities.
  • *5 For a snack, roast pumpkin or squash seeds and sprinkle with salt. For meals, mix them into a stir-fry or a pasta sauce. Can also put them in cookies, muffins, and other baked goods in the place of walnuts.
  • *6 Tahini is sold in stores that cater to populations from the Middle East. It is also sold in many grocery stores.
  • *6 For tahini to have a high nutritional content, make sure it is pure tahini. Sometimes there are "Western" brands of tahini which are diluted and have a much lower nutritional content.
  • *7 Only buy fair trade cocoa and chocolate to avoid cocoa beans picked by child slaves in West Africa.

 

Omega 3

Recommended Daily Intake (RDI): 1.5 g*1

Food typically in lunch and dinner
  • Side (grains, pasta, potatoes, etc.)
Many brands of bread sold in grocery stores are enriched with omega 3.
  • Bread, enriched                66% of RDI per 2 slices
Food typically in breakfast or snacks
  • Cereal
Many types of cereals are enriched with omega 3.
  • Granola                    13% of RDI per bowl / ¾ cup
  • Optimum (Nature's Path)             54% of RDI per bowl/30 g
  • Special K Low Carb Lifestyle Protein Plus     24% of RDI per bowl/30 g
  • Uncle Sam                    139% of RDI per bowl/30 g
  • Wheat germ, toasted                20% of RDI per bowl/ ¾ cup
Other
  • Oils
    • Chia seed oil*2            higher omega-3 content than flaxseed oil
    • Flaxseed oil*2                Usually 100% of RDI per dose
    • Kiwi seed oil*2            higher omega-3 content than flaxseed oil
Notes from asterisks
  • *1 Try to keep your ratio of omega 3 to omega 6 at a maximum of 1:3.
  • *2 These oils are available in health food stores. You can get them in a bottle or in capsules.
  • *2 Mix with vinegar to make salad dressing
  • *2 Take by the spoonful to save time
  • *2 Do not heat up. If it is heated, it will lose the omega-3.

 

Protein
Recommended Daily Intake (RDI): 50 g*1 (This is average, but it varies according to height, weight, and sex)
Food typically in lunch and dinner
  • Main (beans, soy products, etc.)
    • Black beans                    30% of RDI per cup
    • Chickpeas                    24% of RDI per cup
    • Corn, yellow                    10% of RDI per cup
    • Kidney beans                    30% of RDI per cup
    • Lentils                        36% of RDI per cup
    • Mature lupin beans*2                72% of RDI per 100 g
    • Mature soybeans*2                73% of RDI per 100 g
    • Perogies, potato and onion (Compliments brand)    21% of RDI per 6 perogies
    • Potato + skin                    11% of RDI per medium sized
    • Sliced veggie "meat"                20% of RDI per 4 slices
    • Tofu, firm                    36% of RDI per quarter package
    • TVP (textured vegetable protein)*3        48% of RDI per half cup, dry    
    • Veggie ground "beef"                30% of RDI per half cup
    • Veggie "sausage" (Tofurky brand)        48% of RDI per sausage
  • Side (grains, pasta, potatoes, etc.)
    • Bread                        10% of RDI per 2 slices
    • Bread, whole wheat                20% of RDI per 2 slices
    • Couscous*4                    12% of RDI per cup
    • Pasta                        20% of RDI per cup
    • Pita                        10% of RDI per pita
    • Quinoa*5                     40% of RDI per cup
    • Tortillas, wheat                10% of RDI per 2 tortillas
Food typically in breakfast or snacks
  • Cereal
    Many cereals are a good source of protein
    • Frosted Mini Wheats                11% of RDI per bowl/30 g
    • Oatmeal                    10% of RDI per bowl/45 g
    • Raisin Bran                    10% of RDI per bowl/30 g
    • Shreddies                     10% of RDI per bowl/30 g
    • Special K                    14% of RDI per bowl/ 30 g
    • Total                        26% of RDI per bowl/30 g
  • Nuts
    • Cashews                    24% of RDI per half cup
    • Peanuts                    35% of RDI per half cup
  • Seeds
    • Hempseed kernels*6                 31% of RDI per quarter cup
    • Pumpkin seed kernels*7            37% of RDI per quarter cup
    • Squash seed kernels*7            37% of RDI per quarter cup
    • Sunflower seeds                16% of RDI per quarter cup
    • Watermelon seed kernels*7            37% of RDI per quarter cup
  • Spreads
    • Cashew butter                    14% of RDI per 2 and ½ tbsp
    • Peanut butter, chunky                19% of RDI per 2 and ½ tbsp
    • Tahini*8                    15% of RDI per 2 and ½ tbsp
Other
  • Drinks
    • Soymilk                    12% of RDI per cup
Notes from asterisks
  • *1 Excessive protein causes calcium to leach from bones.
  • *2 "Mature" means the beans have ripened longer, and are thus richer in protein.
  • *3 TVP (textured vegetable protein) is light brown and comes in small cubes/chunks or flakes. It is made from soybean flour and has a very "meaty" texture.
  • *3 TVP comes dehydrated and must be boiled. After that, it can be cooked in many different ways – fried in a stir fry or for fajitas; added to a stew or soup; baked in a casserole. It is very absorbent and will take on the flavor of whatever seasoning you add.
  • *3 You can buy TVP at health food stores, bulk stores, and many grocery stores.
  • *4 Couscous is a grain that is cooked the same way rice is. The grains are very small and rounded in shape, and are a yellow in color.
  • *5 Quinoa is a grain that is cooked the same way rice is. The grains are very small and rounded in shape. When it is cooked it becomes a clearish-white color.
  • *6 Hempseeds can be purchased in health food stores and certain grocery stores.
  • *6 Their taste is non-intrusive and add a nice subtle texture to whatever you add them to, so this leaves many possibilities for how to eat them. I like to sprinkle them onto or into whatever I'm eating: cereal, soup, stew, stir-fry. chilé, tacos, casserole, curry, pasta, pizza, cookies, cake, non-dairy ice cream, etc.
  • *7 Pumpkin, squash, and watermelon seeds are popular in Middle Eastern and East Asian cultures and can be found in stores catering to these communities.
  • *7 For a snack, roast pumpkin, squash, and watermelon seeds and sprinkle with salt. For meals, mix them into a stir-fry or a pasta sauce. Can also put them in cookies, muffins, and other baked goods in the place of walnuts.
  • *8 Tahini is sold in stores that cater to populations from the Middle East. It is also sold in many grocery stores.
  • ******** For tahini to have a high nutritional content, make sure it is pure tahini. Sometimes there are "Western" brands of tahini which are diluted and have a much lower nutritional content.

 

Vitamin B6
Recommended Daily Intake (RDI): 2 mg

Food typically in lunch and dinner
  • Main (beans, soy products, etc.)
    • Chickpeas / garbanzo beans            30% of RDI per cup
    • Corn, yellow                    10% of RDI per cup
    • Kidney beans                    11% of RDI per cup
    • Lentils                        18% of RDI per cup
    • Sliced veggie "meat"                12% of RDI per 4 slices
    • Veggie ground "beef"                30% of RDI per half cup
    • Veggie "sausage" (Tofurky brand)        25% of RDI per sausage
  • Side (grains, pasta, potatoes, etc.)
Nearly all brands of bread sold in grocery stores are enriched with b6.
  • Bread, enriched                10% of RDI per 2 slices
  • Potato + skin                    28% of RDI per medium sized
  • Quinoa*1                    20% of RDI per cup
  • Sweet potato, baked                13% of RDI per medium sized
  • Vegetables
    • Avocado                    10% of RDI per half cup
    • Red bell pepper                12% of RDI per cup
Food typically in breakfast or snacks
  • Cereal
    Many types of cereal are enriched with b6.
    • The average enriched cereal            25% of RDI per bowl/30 g
    • Total                        100% of RDI per bowl/30 g
  • Fruits
    • Banana*2                    34% of RDI per medium sized
  • Seeds
    • Sunflower seeds                14% of RDI per quarter cup
  • Spreads
    • Peanut butter, chunky                12% of RDI per 2 and ½ tbsp
Other
  • Drinks
    • Tomato juice                    10% of RDI per 6 oz
Notes from asterisks
  • *1 Quinoa is a grain that is cooked the same way rice is. The grains are very small and rounded in shape. When it is cooked it becomes a clearish-white color.
  • Only buy fair trade bananas to avoid supporting amongst the most abusive and corrupt multinational corporations in the world (particularly Chiquita).

 


Vitamin B12
Recommended Daily Intake (RDI): 6 mcg
Food typically in lunch and dinner
  • Main (beans, soy products, etc.)
    • Sliced veggie "meat"                40% of RDI per 4 slices
    • Veggie ground "beef"                121% of RDI per half cup
      • Veggie "sausage" (Tofurky brand)        100% of RDI per sausage
  • Side (grains, pasta, potatoes, etc.)
Nearly all brands of bread sold in grocery stores are enriched with b12.
  • Bread, enriched                12% of RDI per 2 slices
Food typically in breakfast or snacks
  • Cereal
    Many types of cereal are enriched with b12.
    • The average enriched cereal            25% of RDI per bowl/30 g
    • Special K                    100% of RDI per bowl/30 g
    • Total                        100% of RDI per bowl/30 g
Other
  • Drinks
    Nearly all brands of rice milk and soymilk are enriched with b12.
    • Rice milk, enriched                25% of RDI per cup
    • Soymilk, enriched                50% of RDI per cup
  • Other
    • Supplements*1                170% to 667,000% of RDI per dose
Notes from asterisks
  • *1 B12 supplements come in capsules, liquid, pills that you swallow, and flavoured chewable pills.
  • * Supplements are relatively cheap, working out to about 10 to 50 cents per day (depending on the brand and dosage).
  • *1 B12 can only be efficiently absorbed into the body in small doses. Once the dose gets higher than 5 mcg, the amount absorbed is marginal. Thus, it is more efficient to take two 10 mcg pills 6 hours apart than to take one 100 mcg pill.
  • *1 More B12 is absorbed through food or through enriched foods and drinks than through supplements.
  • *1 Supplement makers are aware of the low absorption rate of B12 and ensure that supplements have enough B12 to account for this.
  • *1 It is advised that vegans take one low dose supplement per day (10 mcg to 100 mcg) or one mega dose supplement per week (1,000 to 3,000 mcg). However, the use of weekly supplements has not been tested, so the daily method is recommended.

 

Vitamin D
Recommended Daily Intake (RDI): 400 IU
Food typically in breakfast or snacks
  • Cereal
    Many types of cereal are enriched with vitamin D.
    • The average enriched cereal            10% of RDI per bowl/30 g
    • Total                        25% of RDI per bowl/30 g
Other
  • Drinks
    Nearly all brands of almond milk, rice milk and soymilk are enriched with vitamin D.
    • Almond milk, enriched            25% of RDI per cup
    • Rice milk, enriched                25% of RDI per cup
    • Soymilk, enriched                45% of RDI per cup
    • Orange juice, enriched            50% of RDI per cup
  • Other
    • Supplements                     Usually 100% of RDI per dose

 

Zinc
Recommended Daily Intake (RDI): 15 mg

Food typically in lunch and dinner
  • Main
    • Black beans                    13% of RDI per cup
    • Chickpeas / garbanzo beans            17% of RDI per cup
    • Kidney beans                    13% of RDI per cup
    • Lentils                        17% of RDI per cup
    • Sliced veggie "meat"                25% of RDI per 4 slices
    • Veggie ground "beef"                45% of RDI per half cup
    • Veggie "sausage" (Tofurky brand)        50% of RDI per sausage
  • Side (grains, pasta, potatoes, etc.)
Nearly all brands of bread sold in grocery stores are enriched with zinc.
  • Bread, enriched                20% of RDI per 2 slices
  • Quinoa*1                    38% of RDI per cup
  • Sesame flour (use for bread, etc.)        70% of RDI per 100 g
  • Wheat germ, toasted*2            112% of RDI per 100 g
Food typically in breakfast or snacks
  • Cereal
    Many types of cereal are enriched with zinc.
    • The average enriched cereal            10% of RDI per bowl/ 30 g
    • Oatmeal Squares                25% of RDI per bowl/ 30 g
    • Total                        100% of RDI per bowl/ 30 g
  • Nuts
    • Cashews                    26% of RDI per half cup
    • Peanuts                    16% of RDI per half cup
  • Seeds
    • Hempseed kernels*3                56% of RDI per quarter cup
    • Pumpkin seed kernels*4            70% of RDI per 100 g
    • Sesame seeds                    52% of RDI per 100 g
    • Squash seed kernels*4                70% of RDI per 100 g
    • Sunflower seeds                12% of RDI per quarter cup
    • Watermelon seed kernels*4            70% of RDI per 100 g
  • Spreads
    • Cashew butter                    15% of RDI per 2 and ½ tbsp
    • Peanut butter, chunky                10% of RDI per 2 and ½ tbsp
    • Tahini (sesame butter)* 5            13% of RDI per tbsp
Other
  • Drinks
    Nearly all brands of soymilk are enriched with zinc.
    • Soymilk, enriched                10% of RDI per cup
  • Other
    • Cocoa powder*6                45% of RDI per 100 g
Notes from asterisks
  • *1 Quinoa is a grain that is cooked the same way rice is. The grains are very small and rounded in shape. When it is cooked it becomes a clearish-white color.
  • *2 Packed in jars and sold toasted, wheat germ is great to sprinkle on top of any food. Try it on salads, rice, cereal, casseroles, or steamed vegetables. Add it to soymilk shakes, pancakes, non-dairy yogurt. Bake it into cookies, muffins, bread, or other baked goods.
  • *3 Hempseeds can be purchased in health food stores and certain grocery stores.
  • *3 Their taste is non-intrusive and add a nice subtle texture to whatever you add them to, so this leaves many possibilities for how to eat them. I like to sprinkle them onto or into whatever I'm eating: cereal, soup, stew, stir-fry. chilé, tacos, casserole, curry, pasta, pizza, cookies, cake, non-dairy ice cream, etc.
  • *4 Pumpkin, squash, and watermelon seeds are popular in Middle Eastern and East Asian cultures and can be found in stores catering to these communities.
  • *4 For a snack, roast pumpkin, squash, and watermelon seeds and sprinkle with salt. For meals, mix them into a stir-fry or a pasta sauce. Can also put them in cookies, muffins, and other baked goods in the place of walnuts.
  • *5 Tahini is sold in stores that cater to populations from the Middle East. It is also sold in many grocery stores.
  • *5 For tahini to have a high nutritional content, make sure it is pure tahini. Sometimes there are "Western" brands of tahini which are diluted and have a much lower nutritional content.
  • *6 Only buy fair trade cocoa and chocolate to avoid cocoa beans picked by child slaves in West Africa.

 

http://www.vegetarian.org.uk/factsheets/b12factsheet.html

"One extensive UK study described the nutrient intakes of over 65,000 people including 33,883 meat-eaters, 10,110 fish-eaters, 18,840 lacto-ovo vegetarians and 2,596 vegans. This EPIC-Oxford cohort currently includes the largest number of vegetarians than any comparable study in the world. The study concluded that vegans had the highest intakes of fibre, vitamin B1, folate, vitamin C, vitamin E, magnesium and iron, and the lowest intakes of retinol, vitamin B12, vitamin D, calcium and zinc. But this does not necessarily mean they were deficient in any of these nutrients."
  • Davey G.K., Spencer E.A., Appleby P.N., Allen N.E., Knox K.H. and Key T.J. 2003. EPIC-Oxford: lifestyle characteristics and nutrient intakes in a cohort of 33 883 meat-eaters and 31 546 non meat-eaters in the UK. Public Health Nutrition. 6 (3): 259-69

 


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